Allah - the Moon God
The Archeology of The Middle East
The religion of Islam has as its focus of worship a deity by
the name of "Allah." The Muslims claim that Allah in pre-Islamic times was the
biblical God of the Patriarchs, prophets, and apostles. The issue is thus one of
continuity. Was "Allah" the biblical God or a pagan god in Arabia during
pre-Islamic times? The Muslim's claim of continuity is essential to their attempt to
convert Jews and Christians for if "Allah" is part of the flow of divine
revelation in Scripture, then it is the next step in biblical religion. Thus we should all
become Muslims. But, on the other hand, if Allah was a pre-Islamic pagan deity, then its
core claim is refuted. Religious claims often fall before the results of hard sciences
such as archeology. We can endlessly speculate about the past or go and dig it up and see
what the evidence reveals. This is the only way to find out the truth concerning the
origins of Allah. As we shall see, the hard evidence demonstrates that the god Allah was a
pagan deity. In fact, he was the Moon-god who was married to the sun goddess and the stars
were his daughters.
Archeologists have uncovered temples to the Moon-god throughout the
Middle East. From the mountains of Turkey to the banks of the Nile, the most wide-spread
religion of the ancient world was the worship of the Moon-god. In the first literate
civilization, the Sumerians have left us thousands of clay tablets in which they described
their religious beliefs. As demonstrated by Sjoberg and Hall, the ancient Sumerians
worshipped a Moon-god who was called many different names. The most popular names were
Nanna, Suen and Asimbabbar. His symbol was the crescent moon. Given the amount of
artifacts concerning the worship of this Moon-god, it is clear that this was the dominant
religion in Sumeria. The cult of the Moon-god was the most popular religion throughout
ancient Mesopotamia. The Assyrians, Babylonians, and the Akkadians took the word Suen and
transformed it into the word Sin as their favorite name for the Moon-god. As Prof. Potts
pointed out, "Sin is a name essentially Sumerian in origin which had been borrowed by
In ancient Syria and Canna, the Moon-god Sin was usually represented
by the moon in its crescent phase. At times the full moon was placed inside the crescent
moon to emphasize all the phases of the moon. The sun-goddess was the wife of Sin and the
stars were their daughters. For example, Istar was a daughter of Sin. Sacrifices to the
Moon-god are described in the Pas Shamra texts. In the Ugaritic texts, the Moon-god was
sometimes called Kusuh. In Persia, as well as in Egypt, the Moon-god is depicted on wall
murals and on the heads of statues. He was the Judge of men and gods. The Old Testament
constantly rebuked the worship of the Moon-god (see: Deut. 4:19;17:3; II Kngs. 21:3,5;
23:5; Jer. 8:2; 19:13; Zeph. 1:5, etc.) When Israel fell into idolatry, it was usually the
cult of the Moon-god. As a matter of fact, everywhere in the ancient world, the symbol of
the crescent moon can be found on seal impressions, steles, pottery, amulets, clay
tablets, cylinders, weights, earrings, necklaces, wall murals, etc. In Tell-el-Obeid, a
copper calf was found with a crescent moon on its forehead. An idol with the body of a
bull and the head of man has a crescent moon inlaid on its forehead with shells. In Ur,
the Stela of Ur-Nammu has the crescent symbol placed at the top of the register of gods
because the Moon-god was the head of the gods. Even bread was baked in the form of a
crescent as an act of devotion to the Moon-god. The Ur of the Chaldees was so devoted to
the Moon-god that it was sometimes called Nannar in tablets from that time period.
A temple of the Moon-god has been excavated in Ur by Sir Leonard
Woolley. He dug up many examples of moon worship in Ur and these are displayed in the
British Museum to this day. Harran was likewise noted for its devotion to the Moon-god. In
the 1950's a major temple to the Moon-god was excavated at Hazer in Palestine. Two idols
of the moon god were found. Each was a stature of a man sitting upon a throne with a
crescent moon carved on his chest . The accompanying inscriptions make it clear that these
were idols of the Moon-god. Several smaller statues were also found which were identified
by their inscriptions as the "daughters" of the Moon-god. What about Arabia? As
pointed out by Prof. Coon, "Muslims are notoriously loath to preserve traditions of
earlier paganism and like to garble what pre-Islamic history they permit to survive in
During the nineteenth century, Amaud, Halevy and Glaser went to
Southern Arabia and dug up thousands of Sabean, Minaean, and Qatabanian inscriptions which
were subsequently translated. In the 1940's, the archeologists G. Caton Thompson and
Carleton S. Coon made some amazing discoveries in Arabia. During the 1950's, Wendell
Phillips, W.F. Albright, Richard Bower and others excavated sites at Qataban, Timna, and
Marib (the ancient capital of Sheba). Thousands of inscriptions from walls and rocks in
Northern Arabia have also been collected. Reliefs and votive bowls used in worship of the
"daughters of Allah" have also been discovered. The three daughters, al-Lat,
al-Uzza and Manat are sometimes depicted together with Allah the Moon-god represented by a
crescent moon above them. The archeological evidence demonstrates that the dominant
religion of Arabia was the cult of the Moon-god.
In Old Testament times, Nabonidus (555-539 BC), the last king of
Babylon, built Tayma, Arabia as a center of Moon-god worship. Segall stated, "South
Arabia's stellar religion has always been dominated by the Moon-god in various
variations." Many scholars have also noticed that the Moon-god's name "Sin"
is a part of such Arabic words as "Sinai," the "wilderness of Sin,"
etc. When the popularity of the Moon-god waned elsewhere, the Arabs remained true to their
conviction that the Moon-god was the greatest of all gods. While they worshipped 360 gods
at the Kabah in Mecca, the Moon-god was the chief deity. Mecca was in fact built as a
shrine for the Moon-god.
This is what made it the most sacred site of Arabian paganism. In
1944, G. Caton Thompson revealed in her book, The Tombs and Moon Temple of Hureidha, that
she had uncovered a temple of the Moon-god in southern Arabia. The symbols of the crescent
moon and no less than twenty-one inscriptions with the name Sin were found in this temple.
An idol which may be the Moon-god himself was also discovered. This was later confirmed by
other well-known archeologists.
The evidence reveals that the temple of the Moon-god was active even
in the Christian era. Evidence gathered from both North and South Arabia demonstrate that
Moon-god worship was clearly active even in Muhammad's day and was still the dominant
cult. According to numerous inscriptions, while the name of the Moon-god was Sin, his
title was al-ilah, i.e. "the deity," meaning that he was the chief or high god
among the gods. As Coon pointed out, "The god Il or Ilah was originally a phase of
the Moon God." The Moon-god was called al-ilah, i.e. the god, which was shortened to
Allah in pre-Islamic times. The pagan Arabs even used Allah in the names they gave to
their children. For example, both Muhammad's father and uncle had Allah as part of their
The fact that they were given such names by their pagan parents
proves that Allah was the title for the Moon-god even in Muhammad's day. Prof. Coon goes
on to say, "Similarly, under Mohammed's tutelage, the relatively anonymous Ilah,
became Al-Ilah, The God, or Allah, the Supreme Being."
This fact answers the questions, "Why is Allah never defined in
the Qur'an? Why did Muhammad assume that the pagan Arabs already knew who Allah was?"
Muhammad was raised in the religion of the Moon-god Allah. But he went one step further
than his fellow pagan Arabs. While they believed that Allah, i.e. the Moon-god, was the
greatest of all gods and the supreme deity in a pantheon of deities, Muhammad decided that
Allah was not only the greatest god but the only god.
In effect he said, "Look, you already believe that the Moon-god
Allah is the greatest of all gods. All I want you to do is to accept that the idea that he
is the only god. I am not taking away the Allah you already worship. I am only taking away
his wife and his daughters and all the other gods." This is seen from the fact that
the first point of the Muslim creed is not, "Allah is great" but "Allah is
the greatest," i.e., he is the greatest among the gods. Why would Muhammad say that
Allah is the "greatest" except in a polytheistic context? The Arabic word is
used to contrast the greater from the lesser. That this is true is seen from the fact that
the pagan Arabs never accused Muhammad of preaching a different Allah than the one they
already worshipped. This "Allah" was the Moon-god according to the archeological
evidence. Muhammad thus attempted to have it both ways. To the pagans, he said that he
still believed in the Moon-god Allah. To the Jews and the Christians, he said that Allah
was their God too. But both the Jews and the Christians knew better and that is why they
rejected his god Allah as a false god.
Al-Kindi, one of the early Christian apologists against Islam,
pointed out that Islam and its god Allah did not come from the Bible but from the paganism
of the Sabeans. They did not worship the God of the Bible but the Moon-god and his
daughters al-Uzza, al-Lat and Manat. Dr. Newman concludes his study of the early
Christian-Muslim debates by stating, "Islam proved itself to be...a separate and
antagonistic religion which had sprung up from idolatry." Islamic scholar Caesar
Farah concluded "There is no reason, therefore, to accept the idea that Allah passed
to the Muslims from the Christians and Jews." The Arabs worshipped the Moon-god as a
supreme deity. But this was not biblical monotheism. While the Moon-god was greater than
all other gods and goddesses, this was still a polytheistic pantheon of deities. Now that
we have the actual idols of the Moon-god, it is no longer possible to avoid the fact that
Allah was a pagan god in pre-Islamic times. Is it any wonder then that the symbol of Islam
is the crescent moon? That a crescent moon sits on top of their mosques and minarets? That
a crescent moon is found on the flags of Islamic nations? That the Muslims fast during the
month which begins and ends with the appearance of the crescent moon in the sky?
The pagan Arabs worshipped the Moon-god Allah by praying toward Mecca several times a day;
making a pilgrimage to Mecca; running around the temple of the Moon-god called the Kabah;
kissing the black stone; killing an animal in sacrifice to the Moon-god; throwing stones
at the devil; fasting for the month which begins and ends with the crescent moon; giving
alms to the poor, etc.
The Muslim's claim that Allah is the God of the Bible and that Islam
arose from the religion of the prophets and apostles is refuted by solid, overwhelming
archeological evidence. Islam is nothing more than a revival of the ancient Moon-god cult.
It has taken the symbols, the rites, the ceremonies, and even the name of its god from the
ancient pagan religion of the Moon-god. As such, it is sheer idolatry and must be rejected
by all those who follow the Torah and Gospel. moongod.htm
Yeshua Communications Network.
Copyright 1997-8, All Rights Reserved.
(Received from THE AP LIST - Meri Burlingame
report why they chose Jesus
Christians from 39 nations and 50 ethnic groups are represented in a
study of some 600 ex-Moslems carried out by Fuller Theological Institute's Professor
Dudley Woodberry. They speak of the reasons why they decided to leave Islam to follow
Jesus, even in the face of heavy persecution, sacrifice and death threats.
The most important results:
- a growing number of Moslems are turning to Jesus;
- a growing number of small groups are meeting in secret, hiding their new faith even from
their own families.
The most frequently mentioned reasons for conversion were:
1. Certainty of Salvation: according to Islamic tradition (Hadith), the bridge to heaven
"is only as wide as a hair; not even good deeds guarantee admission to
Paradise." Many were attracted by the certainty of salvation in Jesus.
2. Christ's character is particularly attractive: "He does not retaliate, is humble,
loves the poor and outcasts; the power of his love is unique, and one can enter a
relationship with him, completely different to Islam, in which a personal relationship
with God is unthinkable."
3. Christians' character: "Christians are the only people who really work for justice
for the poor and repressed; Christians' unconditional love, and their peaceful and
contented aura are very noticeable."
4. Dreams and visions: over 25% said that dreams and visions were decisive in them finding
Christ. Jesus very frequently appears to Moslems as a white figure:
- One believer from Guinea recounts the dream of a figure in a white robe, calling the man
to come to Him. In a related dream, he recalls that the same figure's arms were extended,
beckoning him. He now knows that the figure was Christ.
- A convert from the Middle East who had been afflicted with severe headaches was lying on
his bed after having prayed for his sick son. A man with a beautiful, peaceful face
appeared. Dressed in white, the figure walked to the head of the man's bed and touched him
three times on the head. The next morning his headaches were gone. His son, too, was fully
- A West African man had a clear vision of a devout Moslem in hell and a poor Christian,
who had been unable to give alms, in heaven. A voice explained to him that the difference
was belief in Jesus.
5. Supernatural experiences: a number of ex-Moslems had supernatural experiences which
were decisive in them finding Christ. An Egyptian Moslem was reading the gospels, and had
just reached Luke 3 when a strong wind entered the room, and a voice said "I am Jesus
Christ, whom you hate. I am the Lord you are seeking." "I cried and cried, and
decided to follow Jesus that day," he remembers.